Feeding the Broodmare During Lactation-Monitor Body Condition and Topline Score

Proper nutrition for the broodmare during lactation is essential to make certain that she produces adequate milk for the foal and also maintains her body condition so that she will re-breed successfully and safely carry the next year’s foal.

The broodmare has substantial increases in requirements for digestible energy, protein, lysine, methionine, threonine and minerals as she goes from the last month of Feeding the Broodmare During Lactationgestation to the first month of lactation.

For a 500 kg (1100 lb) mare, her DE requirement goes from 21.4 Mcal per day to 31.7 Mcal per day, her protein requirement goes from 630 grams to 1535 grams per day, her lysine requirement goes from 27.1 grams to 84.8 grams per day and her calcium requirement goes from 20 grams per day to 59.1 grams per day, with similar increases in other amino acids and minerals. (Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Sixth Edition, pages 298-299).

If her feed/nutrient intake is not increased to provide these nutrients, she will attempt to maintain milk production by depleting her body stores for energy, amino acids(primarily from muscle mass) and minerals, causing loss of weight,  loss of body condition, loss of muscle mass and some bone mineral losses.

To meet her increased DE requirement, an additional 3.43 kg or 7.5 pounds of grain containing 3.0 Mcal/kg (1364 Calories/lb) will need to be added to her diet gradually post foaling.

This need to be adjusted to maintain her body condition as mares vary widely in milk production!

Fortunately, she also can consume more dry matter during lactation, so she is actually able to eat more forage and more feed.

If she is fed a product that is labeled as suitable for lactating mares, the additional feed will provide the additional energy as well as the other important nutrients.

She will also require unlimited access to water and access to salt free choice along with good quality forage.

If she does lose weight during lactation (reflected by loss of both body condition score and topline score, she is much less likely to cycle normally during lactation and less likely to become pregnant and carry the next foal.  This may explain why some mares are “every other year” mares in producing foals.

They are frequently mares that produce large foals and milk very heavy during lactation.  As a result, they do NOT maintain body condition and do not re-breed and carry a foal the next year.  When they are not in foal and not lactating, they gain weight and come back into the next breeding season in good flesh and breed successfully.

This is even more likely if they are not in a suitable body condition (BCS 6+) prior to foaling. The nutrient requirements will start to decrease at the 3rd month of lactation and will gradually decrease until the foal is weaned, when she can then be fed at maintenance levels adjusted as needed.

Monitoring body condition and topline score of the mare and the body condition score and growth rate of the foal are the best ways to determine if the feeding program for both is producing the desired results!

Solving Separation Anxiety in Horses

It’s always a great consideration to keep your horse with a companion, as it feeds that natural instinct and bond horses experience in the wild. Although ideal, sometimes it’s not realistic. There can be periods of time where your horse will need to cope with being separated from stall mates or companions, and the better prepared they are, the easier the transition.

Here are a few tips to better prepare your horse for times of separation:

Separation Anxiety in Horses

  • Start Small – Moving your horse’s companion away slowly, can sometimes result in a better transition. Try switching a buddy to another stall and gradually widen that gap of space between the two.
  • Frequency – Keeping a regular routine of separation will help your horse to better adjust. Instead of attempting once a month, try a few times a week. This will set the stage for the progression of separation.
  • Distraction – If your horse seems extremely bothered by the separation, try distracting him with some feed or hay. Practice other forms of distraction that might ease that anxiety.
  • Stay Calm – Horses are very intuitive and can react based on your emotions, so avoid yelling or raising your voice if your horse displays signs of anxious behavior.
  • Keep it Safe – Make sure while separating your horse from his companion that the environment is safe. Check over a stall for safety or fencing for security. If the anxiety is beyond a level of safety for your horse, consider talking to a professional that can help with varying techniques.

Separation anxiety can be stressful for the horse owner and horse alike, but with small, frequent steps, you’re likely to start down the path of stress-free separation.

Amino Acid Requirements for Horses

In order to fuel, repair, and recover muscle, equine diets must optimally contain Amino Acid Requirements for Horsesa superior amino acid profile, including all 10 of the essential amino acids.

Most horse owners can quickly name the crude protein level in the feed they provide their horses. But, what horse owners really need to know about is the amino acid content.

Protein is made up of amino acids, similar to how a chain is made up of links. There are two basic categories of amino acids: Essential and nonessential.

Essential amino acids must be provided in the diet, as the horse cannot create them on its own in the digestive tract, where the nonessential amino acids can be made.

Another key point is that some amino acids are known as “limiting” amino acids. This means that if a horse runs out of this type of amino acid, it can’t utilize any of the remaining amino acids present in the feed.

If the horse has enough of the first most-limiting amino acid, but then runs out of the second most-limiting amino acid, it can’t use the remaining amount of the third most limiting, and so on.

In horses, the first three most-limiting amino acids, in order, are lysine, methionine and threonine. Generally speaking, if these three amino acids are present in sufficient quantities, the ingredients used also provide the remaining amino acids in sufficient quantities.

It is increasingly common to see these three amino acids listed on the guaranteed analysis of horse feed tags, as it is an indication of the quality of the protein sources and the balanced nature of the feed.

If you are looking for a feed that may help impact topline, be sure to look at the guaranteed analysis on the feed tag. In specific Nutrena feeds – SafeChoice productsProForce products, and Empower Balance– the amino acid levels are called out and guaranteed on the tag.

The amino acids included in Nutrena’s Topline Balance products are included in specific amounts and ratios. Research has shown that this specific combination and type of amino acids help to support a healthy topline when fed correctly.

Guaranteed amino acids on the tag is a good starting point. You then need to let the horse tell you if the feed is working by regularly evaluating and noting changes in topline condition.

To determine what nutrition best fits your horse’s needs, take the Topline Balance assessment for a customized nutrition plan.

Winter Care for your Senior Horse

As those who live in true winter geographies know, the cold weather can be brutal for any horse, let alone our aging companions. That is why it’s incredibly important to consider the special needs of your senior horse, as the Winter Care for your Senior Horsetemperatures drop.  

    • Blanketing – Depending on the extremeness of your temperatures, blanketing your senior horse can be an important consideration of winter care. Try to remember to spread out and look over your blankets before the weather turns bitter cold, to ensure they are in good condition. 
    • Body Condition Score (BCS) – It’s important to understand and evaluate your senior horse’s Body Condition Score before the winter months hit. But if you find yourself in the thick of winter with a senior horse that is rapidly losing weight, then speak to your veterinarian about the best options to add on pounds during the frigid months. 
    • Hydration is Key – The role water plays in the health of your horse is just as important during the cold of winter, as it is the heat of summer. Make sure there is adequate access to fresh water for your senior horse throughout the day. Not only can dehydration lead to impaction colic, but it can decrease feed intake, which is vital for your senior horse during the winter months.  
  • Stay Well-Supplied – Make sure you are prepared for the conditions, which includes sufficient amounts of feed and hay, medications, anti-ice materials, flashlights, light bulbs and other items you may need if a storm hits.  

Winter isn’t an easy season to endure with senior horses, but with planning and preparedness, you and your aging friend will weather the storm.  

Halloween Candy – Horses & Dogs

It’s the time of year when ghosts and goblins are out and about – there are Halloween costume contests and pumpkin spice everything. And the candy! So. Much. Candy.  But what’s safe for our horses and dogs? Can they participate in the fun or will the candy make them sick? Most dog owners know that chocolate is toxic to dogs – but would you know what to do if your pup helps himself to that bowl of peanut butter cups? And our horses LOVE sugary snacks, but what’s really safe for them to have and what’s not?

Let’s begin with dogs and chocolate. First off, if you know your dog has ingested chocolate, call your vet. Depending on the type of chocolate and the size of your dog, you may need to bring them in right away. Cocoa powder is the most toxic type of chocolate and white chocolate is the least. Depending on your situation, your vet might suggest you induce vomiting. If you aren’t sure if they ingested it, you should watch your dog for signs of chocolate toxicity – things like vomiting, diarrhea, confusion and restlessness.  When in doubt, go to your nearest emergency vet clinic.

Besides chocolate, really no candy is truly safe for your dog. Many other types of candy such as gum contain a sweetener called xylitol that can cause liver failure in dogs. It’s best to stick to dog specific treats if you want to give your dog something fun for the holiday.

As for horses, what can they have for a Halloween snack? Of course for any horses with insulin resistance diseases, gastric ulcers or other medical conditions, you should stick with only what your vet suggests for treats and feed. But will the occasional candy corn hurt your ‘normal’ horse? Probably not, but keep in mind candy (mints included) have more sugar in them than just one sugar cube, so keep the Halloween treats to a minimum and keep your horse away from anything chocolate. But the safest thing is just giving your horse a carrot, which he will love just as much!

Happy Halloween everyone!

The Road Less Travelled

tevoThe idea has been in the back of Valerie Ashker’s mind for years. As a girl when riding in a car she would imagine guiding her horse over the same terrain that she saw outside her window. This spring, that dream became a reality as Valerie started a cross country horseback ride to bring awareness to a type of horse that has a special place in her heart –  Off  Track Thoroughbreds (OTTB).  Ashker’s passion for giving back to the breed that has done so much for her and her family is the true reason for her journey. She wants to share her message that no matter what discipline you’re looking at, there may be an OTTB that will work for you. And the right horse may be closer than you think.

“People should know that they don’t have to go far to find a good horse – we have so many great prospects here in our own backyard.”

She started her trek in California and ended it 3,300 miles later in Middleberg, VA. What did she take on her journey? Her partner, Peter, who rode with her through the whole journey. Her OTTB horses, Tevo and Solar, who traveled every step. And of course, she took Nutrena feed.

“Nutrena gave me the results I needed to finish” says Ashker. “In fact, one of the remarkable things about this trip is that my horses looked better at the end than they did at the beginning. They were more svelte and their body condition was fantastic.” Ashker fed Nutrena to both of her horses the entire trip.

Tevo was Valerie’s mount. This seven-year-old small & “quirky” horse was bought for $350 dollars and Ashker worked to build his confidence over time. He really showed throughout the ride that he loves trail riding. Tevo is an easy keeper and did not need a lot of extra calories but still needed enough “fuel in the tank” for each day’s travel (average 28 miles/day), so he was fed SafeChoice Perform with a bit of Empower Boost.

Solar was Peter’s mount. On the trip he ate 15 – 18 lbs/day of ProForce Fuel and Empower Boost. Solar is PSSM and it was key to be able to manage this on the trail.

Ashker noted that they were lucky to find good forage in the areas that they traveled through and that made a difference in helping to keep the horses happy and eating.

Following her epic ride, Valerie plans to continue to raise awareness and educate others about owning OTTBs. Her advice for someone just getting started is to have someone familiar with Thoroughbreds and the racetrack with you when you go horse shopping. She warns that there will be work involved: “These horses learned failure at the track. We have to take them and show them that they can be shining super stars in their second career.” But as demonstrated from her ride, that can be done. Both of the horses that Ashker took on her cross country ride are now on their third career; they came off the track to be Valerie’s event competitors before heading out on the trail. Solar served 12 years after the track even after sustaining a fractured right front leg which terminated his racing career as a four-year-old. Tevo competed three seasons through training after his brief racing career.

When it boils down to what made Ashker succeed in her 3,300 mile journey that spanned six months and 10 days she cites first and foremost her awesome OTTB horses and all the people she met along the way that shared her journey. “I just love it – and I don’t give up.”

To learn more about Valerie Ashker and what she’s doing to help support giving second chances to Off Track Thoroughbreds, visit her website at CrowsEarFarm.net and like her on facebook at 2nd Makes thru Starting Gates.

Horse Feeding Problems? The Root Cause of (Most) Feeding Problems

Horse Feeding ProblemsA couple of months ago, a friend asked me about feed for her 20-something retired Jumper that was losing weight coming out of winter.

It’s not uncommon for a horse to shed a few pounds during the transition from winter to spring, but she was concerned that he wasn’t putting them back on with pasture turnout.

When I asked what he was being fed, she said he was getting a senior feed mixed with a performance feed.  Puzzled, I asked why the mix and how much of each?

She shared that he was getting 5-6 pounds of senior feed a day and about 2 pounds of the performance feed for extra calories.  When I looked up the feeding directions for the senior feed, the manufacturer recommended 10-12 pounds per day for his weight.

When I shared this information with my friend, we decided to try increasing the senior to the recommended amount and dropping the performance feed.  About 2 weeks after our conversation, she shared with me that the change was working and he was looking better already!

This conversation got me thinking…. why do we, as horse owners, run into issues with feed?  After all, the design and variety of feeds available today incorporate some of the latest and greatest nutritional research of our time. So why do we continue to struggle? What are the root causes when it comes to problems with our horse’s feed?

Reflecting back on years of questions and troubleshooting, I think I’ve been able to boil it down most cases to one of the two following* –

  • Feeding the incorrect product
    or
  • Feeding the right product incorrectly

When I took a step back, I came to realize that feed can be really complicated.  When you are in the industry and steeped in the subject, it seems so clear.  But when you’re trying to juggle many other elements of the care, training, management, health, etc., the feed part of the puzzle can seem overwhelmingly complicated.

It may seem oversimplified, but here’s my best advice to make sure you’re feeding the right product at the right amount:

  • Find a brand you like, trust and can afford. Not sure?  Ask a friend or pro who have horses in similar age range or activity level as yours. Ask at your farm store.  Ask your vet.  Ask your farrier.  Do some research on your own and find a brand you like.
  • Find a product in that brand that is designed for your horse’s life stage or activity level.  Each product is required by regulation to state on the tag or bag what the product is designed to do for the horse.
  • Weigh your horse using a weight tape or scale if you have access to one. Here is another handy tool for measuring your horse without a scale from a previous blog post.
  • Buy a hanging scale – a decent one can be purchased from a farm supply store for around $30. A person can pay much more but you really just need a scale that ‘tares’ (aka zero’s out) and has a hook to hang a bucket from.
  • Using the feeding directions, calculate how many POUNDS of feed per day your horse should be fed. (Tip – Nutrena offers an easy online calculator tool on each product page at www.NutrenaWorld.com)
  • Place an empty bucket on the scale.  Tare it so the scale is set to 0 with the bucket. Weigh the feed to be sure you’re giving your horse the proper amount according to the directions.
  • Over the next few weeks, check your horse’s body condition score and adjust within the feeding direction range until you’ve reached an ideal weight/condition.

There were many things my friend was doing correctly, such as feeding the correct feed and weighing it to ensure a consistent amount, but one missed detail was all it took to negate her efforts.

As soon as she bumped her horse to the recommended feeding rate, it all came together.

What do you find most confusing about feed?

*Assuming dentition issues, parasite load, hay quality/quantity and disease were ruled out.

Moving to a Boarding Barn – What I’ve Learned

For the 25+ years that I have owned horses, they have always been ‘home’. That is to say, kept on the same property where I lived. Recently I moved Ferris, one of my geldings, to a boarding barn in preparation for a career change (from dressage to Hunter… he LOVES the jump!) and sale. The decision to sell him was incredibly challenging emotionally. I bred him, raised him and did his initial training. But I also came to realize that, though he can do the lower level dressage work, his heart is in the jump….something that I’m not in a good position to do. Moving him to a boarding barn gave me access to a friend and trainer who is helping re-schooling him as a Hunter in preparation of selling him.

The move from home care to a boarding barn means having another person provide daily care and handling, and was something that took me some time to get used to. Thankfully, Mandy, owner and manager at the barn, was very understanding with me, is great at communicating and has done a fantastic job with Ferris for the last few months. If you are considering a similar move, whether for a short endeavor or as a lifestyle change, here are some tips I picked up from my recent experience.

Change in lifestyle
Moving to a Boarding BarnAs I’ve shared in a previous blog, my operation at home is anything but fancy. We have a run-in/lean-to for the horses and they choose when to be in and when to be out. Ferris was used to spending a good bit of energy moving around 24/7 and burning calories to stay warm. With his new living situation, Ferris is now in a stall (in a heated barn) from 4PM to 8AM with pasture turnout during the day. I was initially concerned about this change in activity level and energy needs, potentially leading to excessive weight. As I soon discovered, he quickly adjusted and settled into the barn lifestyle … adores his stall!

Hay transition
Hay/pasture makes up most of a horse’s diet, therefore any change in hay, whether it be a different cutting, supplier, or variety should be made gradually. When I moved Ferris to Mandy’s barn, I also sent along a few bales of his current hay so that she could slowly transition him to her hay. He moved from grass hay to grass hay, which helped. In his new barn, he also has consistent access to hay day and night to keep his system active.

Water System
You might not think it’s a big deal, but a new water system may be disruptive. For example, at home, we have an outdoor, group automatic drinker while in his stall, Ferris has an individual one. Thankfully, the sound of water being replenished is similar, though he did scare himself the first time he drank! Since water is such an important element of a horse’s health and wellbeing, it’s a good idea to monitor their drinking the first few days after making the move. You might also train your horse to drink before you move him.

Feed Transition
Because he was living mainly outdoors at home, I was feeding Ferris a product that is high in fat, designed for hard keepers. It was a really good fit with his lifestyle at home, however the house feed at his new barn is SafeChoice Original, a similar, but slightly different product; higher in fiber and protein, lower in fat. Though Mandy will accommodate a different feed, I wanted to simplify by having him on the house feed. As with his hay, I brought along  bags of his feed from home to transition him to the SafeChoice in his first 7-14 days. At first, he refused to touch his feed (our best guess is that it was the stress of all the changes) so we backed off transitioning him and let him eat his normal feed for the first week. After that, we were able to start the transition again and today, he’s 100% on SafeChoice Original.

Stress of the Move
As you can imagine, the change in environment, smells, sounds, pasture boundaries, routine, activity level and horses were all very stressful for Ferris. He did show his stress for the first few days, but by day 4 had settled into the new routine and environment well. With the stress of all the changes and an increase in work load, he did lose some body condition in the first month, which was addressed with adjustments to his feed and hay.

All Settled In
Today, Ferris is really loving his new job and lifestyle! He is being ridden 5 days a week, of which one day is over jumps. His weight is back to a healthy BCS of 6 and he is adding endurance and muscle each week. We did adjust his feed routine a bit by adding a ration balancer to help with amino acids needed to build his muscles while balancing the energy from grass turnout. He is becoming more consistent and happy in his work and I am able to rest easy knowing he is comfortable and well looked after. Very soon, I will put him up for sale so he can find success in a second career as a Hunter.

I can’t stress enough the importance of good communication between you and the barn owner/manager. If you are used to daily feeding and caring for your horses, letting go and allowing someone else to do that may be a challenge. For me, it was important to discuss my horse’s behavior, routine and regular handling up front so that Mandy and her team were able to give him an easy transition and provide a positive experience. She has also been very good about telling me what’s happening, and I work to keep her informed of what I’m observing with him so together we formulate a plan. I consider her a partner in his care, and one that I’ve come to deeply trust.

Proper Horse Hydration and Electrolyte Use

Although summer officially kicked off just this week, the heat has already been in full force throughout much of the country. Here are some helpful tips to keep your horse safe and hydrated throughout these steamy summer months.