Throughout the year, tending to your horse’s needs requires you to be prepared for a variety of conditions. When the temperature falls and the winds grow colder, you should be prepared with the proper gear, supplies and accessories to keep your horse healthy and happy during the upcoming months. Learn more about caring for your horse during the winter so you can be prepared well before the first frost.
Water and Food
- Food for Health and Warmth. Food digestion is a primary source of warmth for your horse, which means your horse’s caloric needs can increase during the colder months. Use quality forage, combined with grain, as recommended by an equine nutritionist to sustain warmth and maintain caloric intake.
- Wintertime Hydration. Even though your horse might eat snow while it’s outside, fresh water is still important for wintertime hydration. A supply of (non-frozen) water, ideally above 45 degrees, will keep your horse hydrated and aid in digestion.
- Mouth Health. Healthy teeth and mouth allow your horse to drink and eat without discomfort. It’s wise to have an equine veterinarian check your horse’s teeth and mouth to ensure he can eat comfortably and maintain the right caloric intake for weight maintenance throughout winter.
Comfort and Warmth
- Your Horse’s Natural Coat. If possible, allow your horse’s coat to grow during the winter months. Its natural thickness provides your horse with the extra insulation needed to keep its body warm as the weather gets colder, as a layer of warm air is trapped below the surface.
- Provide Extra Warmth. There are times when you must clip your horse’s coat to keep them cool while working in the winter or in preparation for a show . For this reason, or because you’ve got an older horse, extra warmth can increase the horse’s comfort throughout winter. A waterproof, breathable blanket or coat will come in handy for days when your horse needs an extra layer to stay warm.
- Shelter During Winter. The warmest natural coat isn’t always enough to protect your horse from cold temperatures. A strong wind can cut right through it, and a wet coat can quickly lose its insulating ability. Provide your horse with shelter from wind, snow and rain so it can enjoy pasture time and still have access to an area that will protect it from the elements.
- Wintertime Riding. When riding your horse during the winter months, be careful to warm them up properly and ensure any sweaty areas are fully dried since this can cause the horse to later become chilled. Likewise, maintain care of horse riding tack and the proper saddle so that it doesn’t become cracked and dry from the cold air, causing it to become less effective.
Tending to Health
- Controlling Parasites. Consult with the equine veterinarian for wintertime parasite control. Once the first frost has occurred, you may want to give your horse something to kill bot larvae.
- Barn Pest Control. People and horses aren’t the only creatures that seek warm places in wintertime. Other pests are likely to find their way into the barn. Discourage and control pests by keeping food storage in sealed containers. Likewise, store blankets, leather products and other materials that could be used for nests in sealed storage spaces.
- Vaccinations. Good health is pivotal to staying comfortable and warm from the first frost until the temperatures begin to rise again. Part of your effort to maintain your horse’s health should include any necessary vaccinations as autumn transitions to winter.
- Take Care of Hooves. Hoof growth occurs throughout the year. Maintain hoof care year-round. Consider having your farrier use winter studs for traction and snowball pads to keep snow from accumulating inside the bottom of the hoof.
Make it easy to access everything you need throughout the winter months by putting away the seasonal items you won’t need again until spring. By organizing your barn storage space, you can avoid wasting time searching for supplies and spend it grooming or caring for your horse. In conjunction with preparing your horse for winter, you can also be prepared by getting organized and ready to spend quality time with your equine friend this winter.
Ashly Snell works at Dover Saddlery and has been an avid equestrian for 20 years. She currently enjoys eventing with and caring for her two Dutch Warmbloods.
Even though this is a horse nutrition blog, nutrition is only one piece of the puzzle when it comes to keeping your horses happy and healthy. As we head in to cold winter months, I thought I’d share some of my favorite tips for prepping your horse and some of the gear that goes with him!
- Blanketing: In general, horses adapt well to decreasing temperatures by growing an insulating hair coat. As long as they have shelter to get out of wind and precipitation, and are able to meet their increased energy (calorie) requirement, they do quite well and can tolerate sub-zero temperatures.
- Keep in mind, the insulating value of the hair coat is compromised if it gets wet. As temperatures drop below the critical temperature which is around 50°F on average, horses require more energy to stay warm, which is best provided by increasing the forage in their diet, not grain.
- Blanketing may be a good option if:
- There is no shelter during turn out
- The horse’s hair coat is clipped
- You have a very young or very old horse that might not be efficient at maintaining body temperature
- The horse is under-conditioned or under weight
- Finding a blanket that fits well, is waterproof, breathable, and the proper weight (light, medium, heavy fill) based on the conditions are important considerations.
- If you already own blankets, dig them out before you need them and check to ensure they are clean, in good repair, and still fit your horse properly.
- Never blanket a wet horse, or put a wet or damp blanket on a horse.
- Don’t forget to periodically remove the blanket and assess body condition, and check for any rub marks that the blanket may be causing.
- Winterizing the barn and trailer: Fall is a good time to prepare your barn and trailer for colder weather. Cleaning, installing or checking insulation, replacing screens with windows, ensuring ventilation is adequate, insulating water sources, cleaning and safety-checking heaters and electrical systems, are recommended.
- In the barn:
- Check the roof for structural integrity and leaks
- Clean gutters and install snow slides if needed
- Plan for snow removal and de-icing walkways, if applicable.
- In the trailer:
- Check the floor, lights, brakes, and tires and replace or provide maintenance as needed.
- Put together an emergency kit for you and your horse in the event of a break-down in winter weather.
- If you are on the road frequently, consider road-side-service for equestrians in the event of an emergency.
Good luck, stay safe, and take a moment to enjoy the site of your horse playing in the snow if you are lucky enough to see some!
Ferris and Cooper enjoy turnout in the winter months; it keeps them fit and happy.
This is my favorite time of year! It is a time of reflection and relaxation after the show season, when I have time to hit the trails and enjoy the fall colors without the bugs tagging along. The leaves have changed and like it or not, Old Man Winter is right around the corner. Shorter days and cooler temperatures are signaling our horses to grow their winter hair coats.
With these seasonal changes, there are a few good management practices and considerations that can facilitate a smooth and stress free transition into the cooler months of the year.
- Salt: Make sure loose white salt along with fresh clean water is available to your horse(s) at all times. Meeting this requirement helps keep your horse drinking, and may help prevent seasonally related colic episodes due to reduction in water consumption as the days get colder.
- Loose salt is preferable to a block, as horses are not partial to licking a cold block as temperatures fall, and may not consume enough to meet requirements. However, a salt block is preferable to no salt at all.
- Water: Provide water in an insulated or heated bucket/tub. Research suggests that water kept between 40 – 65°F is preferable to cold water, and helps maximize consumption. Make sure your water source is insulated or heated to prevent ice formation when temps dip down below freezing.
- Check electrical wires and grounding to ensure everything is working properly and is safe. All wires should be protected to prevent chewing or disconnection from the power supply.
- Hay: Providing hay as an alternative to fresh pasture as grass goes dormant is a common practice to meet forage and increased energy requirements as it gets colder. Stock up now! Having a reliable source of good quality hay that will get you through the winter months is important.
- Long stemmed forage is the best, however hay cubes, complete feeds, hay stretchers or replacers can be good solutions if hay is scarce, too expensive, or of poor quality.
- Foot care: Having a chat with your farrier about your goals and your horses’ specific needs over the winter is advisable. You may want to consider non-slip solutions or snow pads for horses that are shod, or potentially taking off shoes, and letting your horse go barefoot for a few months. In any case, regular trimming and balancing should be continued throughout the winter months although frequency may go down due to slower rate of hoof growth during this time of year.
- Check in with your veterinarian: Fall is a good time to check in with your vet to make sure your horse is up to date on recommended vaccinations, dental care, and de-worming.
With a little extra preparation and effort, you and your horse can enjoy a wonderful winter together!