Ask the Expert: Slobbers

Question:  My horse is drooling excessively and I’ve heard this is from eating clover. Will this hurt my horse?

Answer:  Recently, there have been several reports of “slobbers” in horses. Slobbers, characterized by excessive salivation or drooling, is caused by a compound (slaframine) produced by the fungus Slafractonia leguminicola, which can be found on red clover.

The fungus can be identified by looking at the underside of red clover leaves, where it appears as small black dots (as though someone dotted the leaf with a felt tip marker). The fungus grows best in hot, humid conditions and can cause slobbers when eaten fresh in pasture or when consumed in dried hay.

Although unsightly, slobbers is not a concern for horses as long as they stay hydrated.

Written by Devon Catalano, M.S. and Krishona Martinson, PhD, University of Minnesota. This and other horse nutrition articles can be found at http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/horse/nutrition/.

Signs You Have a Senior Horse

Are you questioning if your horse has reached that Senior stage in life? Not sure of the signs or conditions that classify a horse as Senior? Then read on for some tell-tale tips on spotting a Senior horse.

Fall Pasture Precautions

Horse owners should take precautions when grazing pastures after the first killing frost. Frost damaged pastures can have higher concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates, leading to an increase in the potential for founder and colic, especially for horses diagnosed with Equine Metabolic Syndrome, laminitis, obesity or Cushings.

To reduce the chances of adverse health effects, we recommended horse owners wait one week before turning horses back onto a pasture after the first killing frost.

Horses should be removed from a pasture when a majority of the forage is grazed down to 4″. The entire pasture should then be mowed to 4″ (since horses do not graze uniformly), drug to disperse manure piles and the horses should be rotated to a different pasture or housed in a drylot. This time of year (fall), horses will likely need to be kept in a drylot due to limited forage re-growth.

Ideally, owners will slowly transition horses back to hay diet (from a pasture diet) in preparation for winter feeding. We do not recommend over-wintering horses on pasture due to plant damage from digging, pawing, and hoof traffic.

Finally, ingestion of dried or wilted (but not fresh) maple leaves is associated with the toxicosis. Toxicosis normally occurs in the autumn when normal leaf fall occurs. Red blood cell damage has been reproduced in horses ingesting 1.5 to 3 pounds of dried leaves per 1,000 pounds of bodyweight.

Horses are the only species for which maple leaf toxicity has been reported. Horses are often depressed, lethargic, and anorexic with dark red/brown urine after the first day of ingestion. They may progress to going down with labored breathing and increased heart rate before death.

Horses should be fenced out of areas where wilted maple leaves are plentiful. Although dried leaves may remain toxic for 4 weeks, they are not generally believed to retain toxicity the following spring.

Written by Krishona Martinson, PhD, University of Minnesota. This and other horse nutrition articles can be found at http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/horse/nutrition/.

Improving a Horse’s Topline

If you’re like most horse owners, as soon as you recognize there is a problem with your horse, your mind immediately searches for a solution. You may ask yourself, “how do I fix this?” and, more importantly, “how fast can I fix this?” The good news is that topline can be improved in a short amount of time. In fact, once a feeding program that provides the correct amino acids in the right balance is implemented (utilizing feeds that include Topline Balance), you may be able to start seeing results in your horse’s topline in as little as a few weeks! Factors to keep in mind to see the fastest results:

  • Feed the correct product. Products that include Topline Balance are: SafeChoice productsProForce products, and Empower Balance products.
  • Feed the product at the recommended rate: Do the math on the feed tag and figure out exactly how much feed your horse should receive for their bodyweight and work level. Don’t estimate!
  • Next weigh it in a scoop and then ensure it’s fed every day; consistency is key!
  • If others are in charge of feeding your horse, make sure they understand the importance of the right amount of feed every day.
  • Assess your horse’s topline and body condition monthly or more and adjust within the feed tag directions as needed, remember forage will change cutting to cutting.

Decreases in topline condition

It can happen faster than you may think possible, but topline condition can start to deteriorate as quickly as it improves – in as little as a few weeks. Once specific amino acids are absent from the diet or supplied in a less bioavailable form, the muscles begin to atrophy, which is quickly noticeable in a simple visual observation. 

Frequency of evaluation

To ensure you are making progress improving your horse’s topline, evaluation should take place on a regular basis – every 30-60 days is a good starting point for maintenance. We recommend more frequent evaluation for horse owner’s closely monitoring their feeding program in order to affect a change.

For more information, and a customized assessment of your horse’s topline, visit Topline Balance.

Ask the Expert: Diseases at Horse Events? Help!

Question:
I have seen posts all over social media about horses getting sick after attending competition events. How can I protect my horse?

Answer:
It is critical to practice biosecurity measures. If you breakdown the word biosecurity, bio means “life” and security means “protection”. Life protection!
Another way to define biosecurity is to prevent or reduce the introduction of disease. In other words, you want to keep the disease away from your farm, or if you do have a sickness, keep it from spreading.

Biosecurity measures to practice include:

  1. Work with your veterinarian to ensure horses are current with recommended vaccines.
  2. Keep sick horses at home. Watch for signs of fever, nasal discharge, and diarrhea.
  3. Wash your hands frequently!
  4. Clean and disinfect stalls at fairgrounds and show facilities. Spray-on commercial disinfectants are readily available. Diluted bleach (8 ounces bleach to 1 gallon of water) is an inexpensive disinfectant; it works best on a surface that has been thoroughly cleaned.
  5. Do not share feed and water buckets, hay bags, grooming tools, tack, or manure forks. Disinfect these items after arriving home from an event.
  6. Limit exposure. Do not allow horses to have nose to nose contact. Limit the general public’s contact with your horses and your contact with other horses.
    Upon returning home from a show, wash your hands, shower, and change clothing and shoes before working with horses kept at home.
  7. Isolate returning horses from resident horses for 14 days. Monitor horses daily for signs of fever, nasal discharge, and diarrhea.

Remember, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

Written by Abby Neu, MS, University of Minnesota. This and other horse nutrition articles can be found at http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/horse/nutrition/.

Horse Manure Management and Composting

Photo credit: Oregon State University Extension

While not the most glamorous subject associated with horse ownership, manure management is a very important and inevitable part of responsible horse ownership, regardless of how many horses you own or manage.

Manure is considered a valuable resource by many farmers for its nutrient values and soil amending characteristics. This summary addresses characteristics of horse manure as well as techniques for handling, storing, composting and utilizing horse manure.

For calculation purposes, the average 1,000 pound horse eats roughly 2% of its body weight and drinks 10 to 12 gallons of water each day. This will vary with individual metabolism, activity level and the weather. On average, that same 1,000 pound horse will excrete 56 pounds of manure (feces and urine combined) each day, which adds up to more than 10 tons annually. In fresh manure, there is roughly 0.2 pounds of nitrogen (N), 0.03 pounds of phosphorus (P) and 0.06 pounds of potassium (K) in each pound of manure.

Storing manure typically consists of: short-term stockpiling, permanent stockpiling, composting or spreading the manure. Stockpiling is a pile of solid manure that is left undisturbed and may or may not be added to. Stockpiling can occur on a temporary or permanent site. There are existing state guidelines for stockpiling manure that should be researched prior to establishing or constructing a manure stockpile.

Composting is managed, accelerated decomposition of organic materials by microbes (i.e. bacteria, fungus and molds). The goal of the composting process is to provide these microbes with an optimum environment that encourages manure decomposition quickly and efficiently. If left on its own, a manure pile will eventually decompose, but nutrients will be lost, and unwanted organisms may infest the remaining compost.

The article Horse Manure Management and Composting further discusses your options for using the manure on your farm. It also outlines items that should be addressed in your farm’s manure management plan.

Your local Soil & Water Conservation District (SWCD) is also a valuable resource for helping you understand local ordinances and regulations. They may also have programs in place to help you establish best manure management practices.

Summarized by Abby Neu, MS, University of Minnesota. This and other horse nutrition articles can be found at http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/horse/nutrition/.

Trailer Checklist

It’s about that time, the temps are climbing and you’re ready to hit the road to the next show, event, rodeo or trail ride. But before that can happen, a well-operating horse trailer is a must. Here are some tips to make your next trailer trip stress-free.

Good Tires

Probably one of the most important considerations when hitting the road is the condition of your trailer tires. It may seem like a no-brainer, but proper tires are key. Make sure you are purchasing tires specific for trailer use, in order to support the heavier load-bearing requirements. A good reference when determining if it’s a tire made for trailer use is to look for a ‘ST’ or special trailer indication printed on the tire. Something else to look for on the tire is the load rating. Each tire will have a number printed on the side to indicate load rating, add the load rating of all the trailer tires to determine the weight capacity. That total should be equal to or greater than your fully loaded trailer weight.

Don’t forget that tire age should be considered as well, due to deterioration of tire structure over time. An easy way to check age of a tire is to look for a 4-digit number (i.e. 1215, built on the 12th week of 2015) which will indicate the tire build date. A physical evaluation of the condition of the tire goes a long way as well in determining age and wear.

Additionally, always check your tire pressure before a trip, as it’s an incredibly important step in safety and comfort in travel.

Checking Trailer Condition

It’s important to check all safety points before hooking up to hit the road. Look over floorboards, ramps, dividers, etc. for signs of rot, rust or deterioration. Also test hinges, springs and latches for secure closure and good working order.

Make sure the trailer hitch is kept well lubricated and checked for missing parts. Chains should also be in good condition. While evaluating the hitch, make sure your jack is working correctly.

Hooking Up the Trailer

Before you even hook up the trailer to your truck, make sure the vehicle is rated to tow the weight of the trailer. Determine if the trailer is balanced and rig is level, as well as test lights and breaks before hitting the road. Make sure to do a loop around your rig to make sure all doors are secured and hitch is attached correctly.

Emergency Items

Below is a list of items to include in case of emergency as you take to that long stretch of highway:

  • Spare tires for the towing vehicle and trailer (inflated to proper PSI)
  • A jack and tire iron or lug wrench
  • Three emergency triangles or flares (triangles are best)
  • Extra supply of coolant/engine oil/transmission and power steering fluids, plus a funnel and service rags
  • WD-40 or other lubricant
  • Chocks to safely block wheels
  • Flash light and extra batteries
  • Tape (electrical and duct)
  • Spare fuses and bulbs for exterior and interior lights
  • A charged fire extinguisher
  • Sharp knife and wire cutters
  • Tool kit
  • Jugs of clean water (can be used for radiator or horses)
  • Jumper cables
  • Spare belts and hoses
  • Tow chain or cable
  • Portable compressor
  • Quick fix tire repair kit
  • Broom/shovel/manure fork and disposal bags
  • Vehicle registrations for the towing vehicle and trailer
  • Proof of insurance

Now that you’ve checked off all the to-do’s of trailer safety, it’s time to hit the road and enjoy the next equine adventure!

Improving Your Horse’s Topline – Why Exercise Alone Isn’t the Answer

A common misperception about topline is that it can be improved through exercise alone. Lack of exercise – or the wrong type of work ‑ is often blamed for a poor topline. While exercise will certainly alter existing muscles, building new muscles is a different story. The nutritional building blocks of muscle (essential amino acids) must be present in sufficient quantities and balanced with adequate calories to rebuild or augment muscle tissue. In fact, if a horse is worked hard but his diet lacks sufficient amino acids, existing muscle mass can shrink. This can be a slippery slope in some situations, and as muscle atrophy sets in, the belief is that the horse needs to work even harder when in fact the fuel is not present (in the form of nutrition) to help support and repair tissue that is broken down with exercise. Just like human athletes, athletic equine partners need more essential amino acids than maintenance horses to maximize the effects of training and allow the horse to look and feel its best.

Certain exercises are thought to improve topline include hill work, backing exercises, and those that encourage the horse to collect and arc the body. These exercises can help condition muscles, but only if the diet is supporting the muscles through proper nutrition. Before you put your horse into a conditioning program, be sure that your diet is in balance and you’ll be much happier with the results.

To determine what nutrition best fits your horse’s needs, take the Topline Balance assessment for a customized nutrition plan.

Ask the Expert: Large Round-Bales

Question: We are having a hard time finding small-square bales and as a results, are going to start feeding round-bales. How many small square-bales are in a round-bale?

Answer: It depends on the weight of both the large and small-square bales. For example, if the round-bale weighs 1,000 pounds, then 20, 50-pound small-square bales would be equivalent to 1 round-bale. If the large round-bale weighs 1,200 pounds and the small-square bales weigh 40 pounds, then 30 small-square bales would be equivalent to 1 round-bale. It important to know the weight of hay bales both for feeding and economic purposes.
Also keep in mind storage and feeding losses associated with round-bales are usually higher compared to small-square bales. Especially if the round-bales are stored outside and fed without a hay feeder.

This article is reprinted with permission from Krishona Martinson, PhD, University of Minnesota. This and other horse nutrition articles can be found at http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/horse/nutrition/.

Calming Effects on Horses

Adapted horses have been found to have a calming effect on other horses in fear-eliciting situations. In practice, experienced horses are often used as companions when young horses are introduced to potentially frightening situations (i.e. loading onto a trailer). However, studies of social transmission of adapted in horses are scarce.

This study, conducted in Denmark, investigated if demonstration by an experienced horse influenced the willingness of young Icelandic horses to cross a novel surface. Young horses were allowed to observe the experienced horse being led five times across a novel surface. Immediately afterwards, the young horses were given the opportunity to cross the novel surface themselves to obtain food on the other side. Controls were allowed to observe the experienced horse eating on the opposite side of the novel surface but not when the experienced horse crossed the novel surface.

All young horses succeeded in the task, but horses who observed the experienced horses crossing the novel surface had significantly lower average and maximum heart rate compared to controls. This result suggests a calming effect of the demonstration, which could be implemented when training young horses in fear-eliciting situations.

Summarized by: Krishona Martinson, PhD, University of Minnesota

This and other horse nutrition articles can be found at http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/horse/nutrition/.